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Sources and Notes

DID CONSTANTINE MAKE THE BIBLE?

Matthew Whitman

Notes on Constantine, the Council of Nicea, and the New Testament Canon

Check out my Nuts and Bolts of the Bible series to learn more about all this stuff: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6XmANg1Drgk&list=PLeLDw8KQgqi6v_s-HXosnAXhOyQ26wDPS

REFERENCE LINKS

A List of Ancient Canons – Click on this if you look at nothing else in this list - http://www.bible-researcher.com/canon8.html

All the Actual Documents From the Council of Nicea (see for yourself what happened!) - https://www.christian-history.org/ibwl-appendices-for-web.html

Athanasius of Alexandria and the Festal Letter - http://www.ntcanon.org/Athanasius.shtml

Athanasius’ Letter itself which outlines the New Testament canon - https://archive.org/stream/FestalEpistlesOfStAthanasiusEnglishTranslation/The_festal_epistles_of_S_Athanasius_Engl-Transl_djvu.txt

Eusebius’ Agreed Upon Books List Full Text from Book III of His “Church History” - http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/250103.htm

The Edict of Milan (313 AD), by Constantine and Licinius Full Text - https://www.holyspirit-al.com/ourpages/auto/2011/7/28/60780317/edict%20of%20milan.pdf

The Battle of Milvian Bridge - https://www.warhistoryonline.com/ancient-history/battle-milvian-bridge-rise-christianity.html

Roman Catholic perspective on canonization process - https://www.catholic.com/qa/was-the-canon-of-scripture-determined-before-the-church-councils-that-decided-it

Greek Orthodox perspective on canonization process - http://orthodoxinfo.com/inquirers/ntcanon_emergence.aspx

Council of Hippo and the NT canon - http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01199a.htm

Council of Carthage and the NT canon - http://www.ntcanon.org/Carthage.canon.shtml

Marcion and His Canon - http://www.bible.ca/b-canon-canon-of-marcion.htm

Montanism - http://www.tertullian.org/montanism.htm

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

The Canon of Scripture, by F.F. Bruce – This is the most important, most well-read work on the subject.

https://www.amazon.com/Canon-Scripture-F-Bruce/dp/083081258X/ref=sr_1_1?crid=267PEQK3DF0NW&keywords=ff+bruce+canon+of+scripture&qid=1554085149&s=gateway&sprefix=ff+bruce+%2Caps%2C245&sr=8-1

Canon Revisited: Establishing the Origins and Authority of the New Testament Books, Michael J. Kruger – This is a more recent work that closely considers the internal and external evidence for the canon and its evolution.

https://www.amazon.com/Canon-Revisited-Establishing-Authority-Testament/dp/1433505002/ref=pd_sim_0_4/144-4586946-6759033?_encoding=UTF8&pd_rd_i=1433505002&pd_rd_r=8b40db2a-5424-11e9-b8ff-1749bfa13380&pd_rd_w=LfQgo&pd_rd_wg=sX5v5&pf_rd_p=90485860-83e9-4fd9-b838-b28a9b7fda30&pf_rd_r=95FC96HK1RD41THC2PYK&psc=1&refRID=95FC96HK1RD41THC2PYK

How We Got the Bible, Timothy Paul Jones – This one is easy and fast; a great place to start.

https://www.amazon.com/How-Bible-Timothy-Paul-Jones/dp/1628622164/ref=sxbs_sxwds-stvp?keywords=canon+of+scripture&pd_rd_i=1628622164&pd_rd_r=f9548926-d159-43d5-92d4-e07ee306ed78&pd_rd_w=5YNBX&pd_rd_wg=ToHKD&pf_rd_p=5c5ea0d7-2437-4d8a-88a7-ea6f32aeac11&pf_rd_r=VT4Z41H9BB1Q5SFCJRDD&qid=1554085309&s=books

Decoding Nicea, by Paul F. Pavo – This is a summary of Christian thought leading up to Nicea, and a summary of what actually happened there.

https://www.amazon.com/Decoding-Nicea-Constantine-Changed-Christianity/dp/0988811995/ref=pd_sbs_0_56?_encoding=UTF8&pd_rd_i=0988811995&pd_rd_r=b094de21-5425-11e9-a577-3bbfcd35dc51&pd_rd_w=Ofhol&pd_rd_wg=1U8w3&pf_rd_p=588939de-d3f8-42f1-a3d8-d556eae5797d&pf_rd_r=FCZ85FE7A4RPCBE36EWM&psc=1&refRID=FCZ85FE7A4RPCBE36EWM

Constantine the Emperor, by David Potter – Best biography of Constantine; very readable.

https://www.amazon.com/Constantine-Emperor-David-Potter/dp/0199755868/ref=sr_1_3?keywords=constantine+biography&qid=1554086288&s=gateway&sr=8-3

SMART PEOPLE WHO DISAGREE WITH ME ABOUT THIS STUFF

Richard Elliott Friedman

https://www.amazon.com/Wrote-Bible-Richard-Elliott-Friedman/dp/0060630353/ref=pd_sbs_0_29?_encoding=UTF8&pd_rd_i=0060630353&pd_rd_r=b094de21-5425-11e9-a577-3bbfcd35dc51&pd_rd_w=Ofhol&pd_rd_wg=1U8w3&pf_rd_p=588939de-d3f8-42f1-a3d8-d556eae5797d&pf_rd_r=FCZ85FE7A4RPCBE36EWM&psc=1&refRID=FCZ85FE7A4RPCBE36EWM

Bart Ehrman was an Evangelical scholar who now takes a more skeptical position on faith and the Bible. He’s an excellent scholar who sometimes arrives at different conclusions that what I described in my video. Here are some relevant links from him:

https://www.amazon.com/History-Bible-Making-Testament-Canon/dp/1598030752

https://www.amazon.com/Misquoting-Jesus-Story-Behind-Changed/dp/0060738170/ref=sr_1_3?crid=MKQCPZFWQYW6&keywords=bart+ehrman&qid=1554085637&s=books&sprefix=bart+e%2Cstripbooks%2C229&sr=1-3

https://www.amazon.com/New-Testament-Historical-Introduction-Christian/dp/019020382X/ref=sr_1_4?crid=MKQCPZFWQYW6&keywords=bart+ehrman&qid=1554085637&s=books&sprefix=bart+e%2Cstripbooks%2C229&sr=1-4

https://www.amazon.com/Jesus-Before-Gospels-Christians-Remembered/dp/0062285203/ref=sr_1_5?crid=MKQCPZFWQYW6&keywords=bart+ehrman&qid=1554085637&s=books&sprefix=bart+e%2Cstripbooks%2C229&sr=1-5

https://www.amazon.com/Lost-Christianities-Battles-Scripture-Faiths/dp/0195141830/ref=sr_1_6?crid=MKQCPZFWQYW6&keywords=bart+ehrman&qid=1554085637&s=books&sprefix=bart+e%2Cstripbooks%2C229&sr=1-6

This link is a response to Ehrman’s “Misquoting Jesus” written by Timothy Paul Jones. Both are worth taking a look at:

https://www.amazon.com/Misquoting-Truth-Guide-Fallacies-Ehrmans/dp/0830834478/ref=pd_sbs_0_8?_encoding=UTF8&pd_rd_i=0830834478&pd_rd_r=b094de21-5425-11e9-a577-3bbfcd35dc51&pd_rd_w=Ofhol&pd_rd_wg=1U8w3&pf_rd_p=588939de-d3f8-42f1-a3d8-d556eae5797d&pf_rd_r=FCZ85FE7A4RPCBE36EWM&psc=1&refRID=FCZ85FE7A4RPCBE36EWM

Here's an article arguing that Marcion effectively brought about the New Testament canon: https://www.westarinstitute.org/blog/marcion-forgotten-father-inventor-new-testament/